High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) was a topic of discussion at the AAEM 2015 Scientific Assembly. Part of an overall lecture on the best literature in pediatric emergency medicine over the last year, the speaker recommended the use of HFNC for pediatric patients suffering from moderate to severe Bronchiolitis.
Citing two recent studies, 1) use of HFNC within the first hour may make PICU admissions four times less likely, and 2) there is no difference between HFNC and nCPAP.
Mayfield, S., Bogossian, F., O’Malley, L. and Schibler, A. (2014), High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy for infants with bronchiolitis: Pilot study. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50: 373–378. doi: 10.1111/jpc.12509
Metge P, Grimaldi C, Hassid S, Thomachot L, Loundou A, Martin C, Michel F. Comparison of a high-flow humidified nasal cannula to nasal continuous positive airway pressure in children with acute bronchiolitis: experience in a pediatric intensive care unit. Eur J Pediatr. 2014 Jul;173(7):953-8. doi: 10.1007/s00431-014-2275-9. Epub 2014 Feb 14.